Τετάρτη, 9 Οκτωβρίου 2013

Η Κοκαίνη και ο Hiv. / Ένας δύσκολος? επικίνδυνος? θανατηφόρος? συνδιασμός... ή.. ?/ Mιά μελέτη από το Journal Of Leukocyte Biology Dimitrios N.Vatakis PhD Okt 2013













Cocaine use may increase an individual's vulnerability to HIV infection by increasing the pool of T cells susceptible to the virus, new research suggests.

H κοκαϊνη μπορεί να αυξήσει την ευαισθησία του ατόμου στην HIV λοίμωξη αυξάνοντας τη δεξαμενή των Τ κυττάρων που είναι ευάλωτα στον ιό.


The researchers from University of California, Los Angeles, found that cocaine renders quiescent CD4 T cells, which are normally refractory to HIV infection, more susceptible to HIV.

Οι ερευνητές από το Πανεπιστήμιο της Καλιφόρνια, βρήκαν ότι η κοκαίνη καθιστά τα CD 4 λεμφοκύτταρα που κανονικά αντιμετωπίζουν την HIV λοίμωξη πιο ευάλωτα στον ιό.


"These studies offer us a better understanding of how cocaine influences quiescent CD4 T cells to promote HIV infection and could lead to the development of better interventions in drug-abusing populations," Dimitrios N. Vatakis, PhD, the study's senior author, told Medscape Medical News.

Αυτές οι μελέτες μας προσφέρουν καλύτερη κατανόηση πως η κοκαϊνη επηρρεάζει τα CD4 κύτταρα και προωθεί την HIV λοίμωξη και μπορεί να οδηγήσει στην ανάπτυξη καλύτερων παρεμβάσεων στους πληθυσμούς χρηστών υπογραμμίζει ο συγγραφέας της μελέτης Δημήτριος Βατάκης.


The study is published in the October issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology.

Η μελέτη δημοσιεύεται στο τεύχος του Οκτωβρίου του  Journal of Leukocyte Biology.


"Significant" Implications

Σοβαρές επιπτώσεις


Dr. Vatakis and colleagues isolated quiescent CD4 T cells from healthy adults, exposed the cells to cocaine, and then infected the cells with HIV. 
Following infection, they monitored the progression of the virus' life cycle and compared this progression with that of virus in cells that had not been exposed to cocaine.

Ο dr Βατάκης και οι συνεργάτες του απομόνωσαν CD4 κύτταρα από υγιείς ενήλικες, εξέθεσαν αυτά τα κύτταρα σε κοκαϊνη, και στη συνέχεια τα μόλυναν με τον HIV.   
Μετά τη μόλυνση, έλεγχαν την πρόοδο του κύκλου ζωής του ιού συνέκριναν αυτή την εξελιξη του ιού με εκείνη στα κύτταρα που δεν είχαν εκτεθεί στην κοκαϊνη.


They found that a 3-day exposure to cocaine enhanced the permissiveness of the T cells to HIV infection.

Βρήκαν ότι τριήμερη έκθεση στην κοκαϊνη ευοδώνει τη μετάδοση της HIV λοίμωξης.



"The potential for cocaine to augment the pool of HIV target cells with a commensurate increase in the viral reservoir has significant implications for HIV-seropositive individuals who abuse or use stimulants such as cocaine," the authors write.

Η πιθανότητα η κοκαϊνη να αυξήσει τη δεξαμενή των κυττάρων που είναι στόχος του HIV αυξάνει την αποθήκη του ιού και έχει σημαντικές επιπτώσεις στα οροθετικά άτομα που κάνουν χρήση κοκαϊνης, λέει ο συγγραφέας


"The coepidemics of elicit drug use and infectious disease are well documented, though typically this connection is thought to occur through lifestyle choices and increased exposure," John Wherry, PhD, deputy editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, noted in a statement.

Η συνύπαρξη χρήσης ουσιών και μολυσματικών νοσημάτων είναι τεκμηριωμένη παρά το ότι τυπικά αυτή η σύνδεση θεωρείται ότι συμβαίνει μέσω επιλογών τρόπου ζωής και αυξημένης έκθεσης σε λοιμώδεις παράγοντες υπογραμμίζει ο John Wherry, PhD,  στο Journal of Leukocyte Biology,


"What often does not come to mind is that drugs such as cocaine may be helping to fuel infections in this high-risk population by altering the immune system," he added.

Αυτό που δεν σκέφτεται κανείς συχνά, είναι ότι φάρμακα όπως η κοκαϊνη μπορεί να βοηθούν στην παρόξυνση επιδημιών σ’αυτό τον πληθυσμό των ΧΕΝ μεταβάλλοντας την απάντηση του ανοσολογικού συστήματος, πρόσθεσε.


Not Just Cocaine?

Όχι μόνον η κοκαϊνη;;


"There have been previous studies connecting cocaine use to HIV pathogenesis," 
Dr. Wherry told Medscape Medical News. "One of the novel things of this new study is the identification of a cell type that is normally resistant to HIV infection that may be perturbed by cocaine use. 
That places this study in a different arena than previous studies and also points to a cell type to monitor clinically," he said.

Υπάρχουν παλαιότερες μελέτες που συνδέουν την κοκαϊνη με την παθογένεση του HIV, λέει ο Dr Wherry


"Patients with histories of substance of abuse, particularly cocaine, may need to be watched a little bit more carefully [because] their overall decline in CD4 cell counts might happen either faster or might happen in a way that actually predisposes to the development of AIDS at perhaps a higher CD4 count than others," Dr. Wherry said.

Οι ασθενείς με ιστορικό χρήσης ουσιών και ειδικά κοκαϊνης μπορεί να χρειασθουν πιο στενή παρακολούθηση γιατί η συνολική έκπτωση των CD4  κυττάρων μπορεί να συμβεί γρηγορότερα ή μπορεί να συμβεί με τρόπο που πρακτικά προδιαθέτει στην ανάπτυξη του AIDS, σε επίπεδο CD4 κυττάρων υψηλότερο από το αναμενόμενο είπε ο Dr Wherry


Dr. Vatakis noted that it is possible that other stimulants may have a similar effect.

O Dr. Vatakis, επεσήμανε ότι πιθανά και άλλα διεγερτικά μπορεί να έχουν αντίστοιχο αποτέλεσμα.


"However, as each stimulant utilizes different means to sensitize cells, there may be some distinctions between different stimulants. Since we have the models established, we will plan to examine other stimulants as well," he said.

Εν τούτοις καθώς κάθε διεγερτική ουσία χρησιμοποιεί διαφορετικά μέσα για να ευαισθητοποιεί τα κύτταρα, μπορεί να υπάρχουν διαφορές μεταξύ των διαφορετικών διεγερτικών ουσιών.


The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health. 

Η μελέτη υποστηρίχθηκε από το NIH των ΗΠΑ. 

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σχολιασμός δικός μας..


Οσο στην Ελλάδα του 2013 ακόμη και παρά την έκταση της επιδημίας στους Χρήστες,  τα τελευταία 3 χρόνια (2011-2012 -2013), δεν χρηματοδοτούνται περαιτέρω τα προγράμματα παρέμβασης (διανομή/ ανταλλαγή συριγγών) 
αλλά αντιθέτως περικόπτονται κονδύλια από τα προγράμματα απεξάρτησης, 
όσο το οργανωμένο έγκλημα δρά ανενόχλητο 
ενώ η αστυνομία κυνηγά τους χρήστες και παρεμποδίζει τις παρεμβάσεις πρόληψης, 
δεν μπορούμε να περιμένουμε δράσεις ευαισθητοποίησης των ΧΕΝ για τις ουσίες που χρησιμοποιούν και τις επιπτώσεις τους. 

Αυτό απαιτεί σεβασμό που η Ελληνική πολιτεία μοιάζει να έχει απεμπολήσει ως αυμπεριφορά προς τους πολίτες της. 

Διαδώστε λοιπόν την πληροφορία, όσοι και όσες μπορείτε …

Gay Mormons: Wendy And Tom Montgomery Lead Push To Change LDS Church Stance On Homosexuality


SALT LAKE CITY -- SALT LAKE CITY (AP) — 

Wendy and Tom Montgomery went door-to-door in their California neighborhood in 2008 campaigning for the passage of an anti-gay marriage proposition. 

They were among thousands of faithful Mormons following the direction of a church that spent millions on the cause.

Then they learned last year that their 15-year-old son is gay — a revelation that rocked their belief system.

Now, Wendy Montgomery is leading a growing movement among Mormons to push The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to teach that homosexuality isn't a sin.

They are hopeful. The Utah-based church's stance on homosexuality has softened considerably since it was one of the leading forces behind California's Proposition 8. 

A new website launched this year encourages more compassion toward gays, implores them to stay in the faith and clarifies that church leaders no longer "necessarily advise" gays to marry people of the opposite sex in what used to be a widely practiced Mormon workaround for homosexuality. 

In May, church leaders backed the Boy Scouts' policy allowing gays in the ranks. 

Some gay Mormons who left or were forced out of the church say they are now being welcomed back — even though they remain in same-sex relationships.

It may seem like negligible progress to outsiders, but Mormon scholars say 2013 has been a landmark year for the religion on gay and lesbian issues.

"For those who have been around as long as I have, to have Mormons and gays in the same sentence is quite something," said Bob Rees, a visiting professor of Mormon Studies at the Graduate Theological Union and the University of California, Berkeley.

Still, the church has only gone so far. Church apostle Dallin H.Oaks reiterated this past weekend during a biannual conference that human laws cannot "make moral what God has declared immoral."

The church website, launched in December, reinforced that while same-sex attraction itself isn't a sin, succumbing to it is.

The contrasting messages from the church have left many Mormons struggling to figure out where they stand.

Wendy Montgomery is among them. Her world changed after she read her son's journal in early 2012 and learned he was gay.

"It made me question everything," 
said Montgomery, 37, of Bakersfield, Calif.  
"I'm looking at this 13-year-old boy who is totally innocent and pure and an amazing kid and I think, 'Either everything I know about homosexuality is wrong, or my son is not really gay. And, he's obviously gay.' I kind of had to unlearn everything I had learned."

Wendy and Tom Montgomery set out on a grueling six-month spiritual journey as they reconciled their love for their son, Jordan, with the teachings of their lifelong faith. 

They let family, friends and church mates know he was gay and established that they wouldn't tolerate any harsh treatment of their son.

They remain faithful Mormons, but have switched congregations after enduring ridicule from friends and fellow church members.

One woman told Montgomery her children should be taken away from her and given to somebody who follows the teachings of the prophet. 

Montgomery and her husband had to step down from their church positions — he was the assistant bishop and she was a Sunday school teacher to teens — after parents flooded the bishop's office with complaints that they were teaching homosexual propaganda that would turn other kids gay.

Their story is featured in a documentary made by the Family Acceptance Project at San Francisco State University. 

The Montgomerys found the organization after getting frustrated with church therapists who told them Jordan was just going through a phase. 

The organization works with conservative religious families to help them navigate their doctrines while also accepting their gay children.

Caitlin Ryan, the project director, has written a pamphlet specifically designed for Mormons that has been distributed throughout LDS churches in Utah. 
She said she believes the church is now paying attention to research that shows suicide has been a major issue with LGBT Mormon youth for decades.

Jordan Montgomery says in the documentary he had suicidal thoughts and was mortified of his parents disowning him.

Wendy Montgomery said she doesn't know how long her son will remain in the church, but steps taken in the past year have given her hope that church leaders will one day reverse their stance that homosexuality is a sin.

"There are so many that grew up in my situation, in conservative, religious homes that are being taught this," 
Montgomery said. 
"It's just not accurate. It's not right. And it's so damaging to the kids."
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Follow Brady McCombs at https://twitter.com/BradyMcCombs
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The trailer for a documentary about Wendy Montgomery's family: http://familyproject.sfsu.edu/